The materials for making carpets can be divided into carpet surface materials, primary backing, anti-loose coating, secondary backing and adhesives. Different carpets use different materials.
1. Carpet surface fiber
The carpet fibers used to produce carpets are nylon, acrylic, polypropylene, polyester and so on. Among them, nylon is suitable for piece dyeing, has excellent abrasion resistance, good resilience and texture retention, and the processing cost is low, so it is used the most. Polypropylene has a low price and poor dyeability. It cannot be used to make long piles and tightly twisted fine piles. It is only suitable for loop structures, such as needled carpets. Therefore, blended carpet fibers such as nylon and polypropylene blended carpet fibers have appeared.
In order to improve the pollution resistance and antistatic properties of carpets, special-shaped hollow fibers have been used abroad, or various additives have been added, such as polyether derivatives of esters, amides or amines, and even fine metal fibers can be mixed to improve the resistance. Electrostatic.
Due to the low price of polypropylene fiber, excellent tensile strength, wet strength, and abrasion resistance, as long as the defects of low resilience and poor dyeability can be improved, it has great potential as a carpet fiber.
2. Primary backing
Primary backing is an integral part of all kinds of carpets. Its main function is to fix the pile loop, provide shape stability and processing adaptability. The piled carpet also needs a secondary backing.
The primary backing used to be jute plain woven mesh, but now it is mostly polypropylene backing, which is cheaper than jute. There are two kinds of polypropylene backing, organic woven and non-woven.
The primary backing requirements of woven carpets are relatively high. At present, jute and cotton fibers are still used, and polypropylene accounts for a small proportion.
3. Anti-loose coating material
Needle-punched and tufted carpets must be treated with anti-loose coating materials to fix the pile loops after needle-punched and tufted on the primary backing. Needle-pierced carpets generally use the dipping method, while the piled carpets use the backside coating method to fix the planted pile loops on the back.
The commonly used anti-loose coating material is styrene butadiene latex with a solid content of 50%-70%. If adding foaming agent, it becomes foamed styrene butadiene latex. This foamed styrene butadiene latex can replace the secondary backing jute. In addition, there are mechanically foamed PVC paste and PU as anti-loose coating materials. Among them, PU can be foamed and cured at room temperature, so heating equipment such as ovens is not needed, but the price is higher.
4. Secondary backing
The secondary backing is generally used in piled carpets, that is, when the anti-loose coating is applied with a layer of bottom layer, the appearance of the carpet is more stable. The secondary backing is still mainly jute. If foaming anti-loose coating materials, such as styrene butadiene foam latex, can be used instead of jute cloth.